Introduction: discovering islam. The pattern of islamic history. Muslim ideal: holy book and prophet. A theory of islamic history. The great muslim empires: Ottomans, saffavids and mughals. Sufis and scholars. Islam of the periphery. Under european rule: the colonial impact on muslim society. Contemporary muslim society. Princes and paupers: muslim societies in Saudi Arabia and south India. Muslim society turned indide out: ethnicity, women and refugees. The reconstruction of muslim thought. Only connect.