Detalles del Título
Detalles del Título

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Título Single- and multi-carrier quadrature amplitude modulation: principles and applications for personal communications, WLANs and broadcastingLibros / Impreso - Libros
Autor(es) Hanzo, Lajos, 1952- (Autor)
Webb, W. (Autor)
Keller, Thomas (Autor)
Publicación Chichester, West Sussex, U.K. : John Wiley & Sons, 2000
Descripción Física xxii, 739 p
Idioma Inglés;
ISBN 0471492396
Clasificación(es) 621.3822
TELEMATICA
Materia(s) Procesamiento de señales; Procesamiento digital de señales; Amplitud de modulación; Cuadratura y rectificación de curvas;
Resumen Preface
Acknowledgements
1 Introduction and Background
1.1 Modulation Methods
1.2 History of QAM
1.2.1 Determining the optimum constellation
1.2.1.1 Coherent and non-coherent reception
1.2.1.2 Clock recovery
1.2.1.3 The Type I, II and III constellations
1.2.2 Satellite links
1.2.2.1 Odd-bit constellations
1.2.3 QAM modern implementation
1.2.3.1 Non-linear amplification
1.2.3.2 Frequency selective fading and channel equalisers
1.2.3.3 Filtering
1.2.4 Advanced prototypes
1.2.5 QAM for mobile radio
1.3 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Based QAM
1.3.1 History of OFDM
1.3.2 Peak-to-mean power ratio
1.3.3 Synchronisation
1.3.4 OFDM/CDMA
1.3.5 Adaptive antennas
1.3.6 OFDM applications
1.4 Summary
1.5 Outline of Topics
2 Communications Channels
2.1 Fixed Communication Channels
2.1.1 Introduction
2.1.2 Fixed channel types
2.1.3 Characterisation of noise
2.2 Telephone Channels
2.3 Mobile Radio Channels
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Equivalent baseband and passband systems
2.3.3 Gaussian mobile radio channel
2.3.4 Narrow band fading channels
2.3.4.1 Propagation path loss law
2.3.4.2 Slow fading statistics
2.3.4.3 Fast fading statistics
2.3.4.4 Doppler spectrum
2.3.4.5 Simulation of narrowband channels
2.3.4.5.1 Frequency domain fading simulation
2.3.4.5.2 Time domain fading simulation
2.3.4.5.3 Box-Muller algorithm of AWGN generation
2.3.5 Wideband channels
2.3.5.1 Modelling of wideband channels
2.4 Mobile Satellite Propagation
2.4.1 Fixed-link satellite channels
2.4.2 Satellite-to-mobile channels
2.5 Summary
3 Introduction to Modems
3.1 Analogue-to-Digital Conversion
3.2 Mapping
3.3 Filtering
3.4 Modulation and Demodulation
3.5 Data Recovery
3.6 Summary
4 Basic QAM Techniques
4.1 Constellations for Gaussian Channels
4.2 General Pulse Shaping Techniques
4.2.1 Baseband equivalent system
4.2.2 Nyquist filtering
4.2.3 Raised cosine Nyquist filtering
4.2.4 The choice of roll-off factor
4.2.5 Optimum transmit and receive filtering
4.2.6 Characterisation of ISI by eye diagrams
4.2.7 Non-linear filtering
4.3 Methods of Generating QAM
4.3.1 Generating conventional QAM
4.3.2 Superposed QAM
4.3.3 Offset QAM
4.3.4 Non-linear amplification
4.4 Methods of Detecting QAM Signals
4.4.1 Threshold detection of QAM
4.4.2 Matched filtered detection
4.4.3 Correlation receiver
4.5 Linearisation of Power Amplifiers
4.5.1 The linearisation problem
4.5.2 Linearisation by predistortion [1]
4.5.2.1 The predistortion concept
4.5.2.2 Predistorter description
4.5.2.3 Predistorter coefficient adjustment
4.5.2.4 Predistorter performance
4.5.3 Postdistortion of NLA-QAM [2]
4.5.3.1 The postdistortion concept
4.5.3.2 Postdistorter description
4.5.3.3 Postdistorter coefficient adaptation
4.5.3.4 Postdistorter performance
4.6 Non-differential Coding for Square QAM
4.7 Differential Coding for Square QAM
4.8 Summary
5 Square QAM
5.1 Decision Theory
5.2 QAM Modulation and Transmission
5.3 16-QAM Demodulation in AWGN
5.4 64-QAM Demodulation in AWGN
5.5 Summary
6 Clock and Carrier Recovery
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Clock Recovery
6.2.1 Times-two clock recovery
6.2.2 Early-late clock recovery
6.2.3 Zero-crossing clock recovery
6.2.4 Synchroniser
6.3 Carrier Recovery
6.3.1 Times-n carrier recovery
6.3.2 Decision directed carrier recovery
6.3.2.1 Frequency and phase detection systems
6.4 Summary
7 Trained and Blind Equaliser Techniques
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Linear Equalisers
7.2.1 Zero-forcing equalisers
7.2.2 Least mean squared equalisers
7.2.3 Decision directed adaptive equalisers
7.3 Decision Feedback Equalisers
7.4 Fast Converging Equalisers
7.4.1 Least squares method
7.4.2 Recursive Least Squares Method [3]
7.4.2.1 Cost function weighting
7.4.2.2 Recursive correlation update
7.4.2.3 The Ricatti equation of RLS estimation
7.4.2.4 Recursive equaliser coefficient update
7.5 Adaptive Equalisers for QAM
7.6 Viterbi Equalisers
7.6.1 Partial response modulation
7.6.2 Viterbi equalisation
7.7 Overview of Blind Equalizers
7.7.1 Introduction
7.7.2 Historical background
7.7.3 Blind equalization principles
7.7.4 Bussgang blind equalizers
7.7.4.1 Sato's algorithm [4]
7.7.4.2 Constant modulus algorithm [5]
7.7.5 Modified constant modulus algorithm [6]
7.7.5.1 Benveniste-Goursat algorithm [7]
7.7.5.2 Stop-and-Go algorithm [8]
7.7.6 Convergence issues
7.7.7 Joint channel and data estimation techniques
7.7.8 Using second-order cyclostationary statistics
7.7.9 Polycepstra based equalization
7.7.10 Complexity evaluation
7.7.11 Performance results
7.7.11.1 Channel models
7.7.11.2 Learning Curves
7.7.11.3 Phasor diagrams
7.7.11.4 Gaussian channel
7.7.12 Simulations with decision-directed switching
7.8 Summary
7.9 Appendix: Differentiation with Respect to a Vector
7.9.1 An illustrative example: CMA cost-function minimization
7.10 Appendix: Polycepstra definitions
8 Trellis Coded Modulation
8.1 Introduction
8.2 TCM Fundamentals
8.3 8-PSK TCM
8.4 16-QAM TCM
8.5 TCM Under Phase Rotation
8.6 Summary
9 QAM Modems
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Transmission Bit Rate Limits
9.3 V.29 Modem
9.3.1 Signal constellation
9.3.2 Training signals
9.3.3 Scrambling and descrambling
9.3.4 Channel equalisation and synchronisation
9.4 V.32 Modem
9.4.1 General features
9.4.2 Signal constellation and bitmapping
9.4.2.1 Non-redundant 16-QAM
9.4.2.2 Trellis coded 32-QAM
9.4.3 Scrambler and descrambler
9.5 V.33 Modem
9.5.1 General features
9.5.2 Signal constellations and Bitmapping
9.5.3 Synchronising signals
9.6 Summary
10 Square QAM for fading channels
10.1 16-QAM Performance
10.2 64-QAM Performance
10.3 Reference Assisted Coherent QAM
10.3.1 Transparent tone in band modulation [9]
10.3.1.1 Introduction
10.3.1.2 Principles of TTIB
10.3.1.3 TTIB subcarrier recovery
10.3.1.4 TTIB schemes using quadrature mirror filters
10.3.1.5 Residual frequency error compensation [10]
10.3.1.6 TTIB system parameters [11]
10.3.2 Pilot symbol assisted modulation [12]
10.3.2.1 Introduction
10.3.2.2 PSAM system description
10.3.2.3 Channel gain estimation
10.3.2.4 PSAM parameters
10.3.2.5 PSAM performance
10.4 Summary
11 Star QAM
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Star QAM Transmissions
11.2.1 Differential coding
11.2.2 Differential decoding
11.2.3 Effect of oversampling
11.2.4 Star 16-QAM performance
11.3 Trellis Coded Modulation for QAM
11.4 Block Coding
11.5 64-level TCM
11.6 Bandwidth Efficient Coding Results
11.7 Overall Coding Strategy
11.7.1 Square 16-QAM/PSAM/TCM scheme
11.8 Distorted Constellation Star QAM
11.8.1 Introduction
11.8.2 Distortion of the star
11.8.2.1 Amplitude distortion
11.8.2.2 Phase variations
11.9 Practical Considerations
11.9.1 Introduction
11.9.2 Hardware imperfections
11.9.2.1 Quantisation levels
11.9.2.2 I-Q crosstalk
11.9.2.3 Oversampling ratio
11.9.2.4 AM-AM and AM-PM distortion
11.10Summary
12 Timing Recovery for Mobile Radio
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Times-two Clock Recovery for QAM
12.3 Early-Late Clock Recovery
12.4 Modified Early-Late Clock Recovery
12.5 Clock Recovery in the Presence of ISI
12.5.1 Wideband channel models
12.5.2 Clock recovery in two-path channels
12.5.2.1 Case of ??? nT
12.5.2.2 Case of ??? = nT
12.5.3 Clock recovery performance in smeared ISI
12.6 Implementation Details
12.7 Carrier Recovery
12.8 Summary
13 Variable Rate QAM
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Variable QAM Constellations
13.3 The RSSI Switching System
13.3.1 Results
13.4 The Error Detector Switching System
13.4.1 Results
13.5 Co-channel Interference
13.6 Application to a DECT-Type System
13.7 Summary
14 Wideband QAM Transmissions
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The RAKE Combiner
14.3 The Proposed Equaliser
14.3.1 Linear equaliser
14.3.2 Iterative equaliser system
14.3.2.1 The one-symbol window equaliser
14.3.2.2 The limited correction DFE
14.3.3 Use of error correction coding
14.4 Diversity in the Wideband System
14.5 Summary
15 Quadrature-Quadrature AM
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Q2PSK
15.3 Q2AM
15.3.1 Square 16-QAM
15.3.2 Star 16-QAM
15.4 Spectral Efficiency
15.5 Bandlimiting 16-Q2AM
15.6 Results
15.7 Summary
16 Spectral Efficiency of QAM
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Efficiency in Large Cells
16.3 Spectrum Efficiency in Microcells
16.3.1 Microcellular clusters
16.3.2 System design for microcells
16.3.3 Microcellular radio capacity
16.3.4 Modulation schemes for microcells
16.4 Summary
17 QAM Speech Systems
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Modem Schemes
17.2.1 GMSK Modulation
17.2.2 ???-DQPSK Modulation
17.3 Speech Codecs
17.3.1 Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
17.3.2 Analysis-by-synthesis speech coding
17.3.2.1 The RPE-LTP Speech Encoder
17.3.2.2 The RPE-LTP Speech Decoder
17.4 Speech Quality Measures
17.5 Discontinuous Transmission
17.6 Channel Coding and Bit-mapping
17.7 Speech Transmission Systems
17.8 Packet Reservation Multiple Access
17.8.1 PRMA performance
17.9 Summary
18 Introduction to OFDM
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Principles of QAM-OFDM
18.3 Modulation by DFT
18.4 Transmission via Bandlimited Channels
18.5 Generalised Nyquist Criterion
18.6 Basic OFDM Modem Implementations
18.7 Cyclic OFDM Symbol Extension
18.8 Reducing MDI by Compensation
18.8.1 Transient system analysis
18.8.2 Recursive MDI compensation
18.9 Adaptive Channel Equalisation
18.10OFDM Bandwidth Efficiency
18.11Summary
19 OFDM Transmission over Gaussian Channels
19.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
19.1.1 History
19.1.1.1 Peak-to-mean power ratio
19.1.1.2 Synchronisation
19.1.1.3 OFDM/CDMA
19.1.1.4 Adaptive antennas
19.1.1.5 OFDM applications
19.2 The Frequency Domain Modulation
19.3 OFDM System Performance over AWGN Channels
19.4 Clipping Amplification
19.4.1 OFDM signal amplitude statistics
19.4.2 Clipping amplifier simulations
19.4.2.1 Peak-power reduction techniques
19.4.2.2 BER performance using clipping amplifiers
19.4.2.3 Signal spectrum with clipping amplifier
19.4.3 Clipping amplification - summary
19.5 Analogue-to-Digital Conversion
19.6 Phase Noise
19.6.1 Effects of phase noise
19.6.2 Phase noise simulations
19.6.2.1 White phase noise model
19.6.2.1.1 Serial modem
19.6.2.1.2 OFDM modem
19.6.2.2 Coloured phase noise model
19.6.3 Phase noise - Summary
20 OFDM Transmission over Wideband Channels
20.1 The Channel Model
20.1.1 The wireless asynchronous transfer mode system
20.1.1.1 The WATM channel
20.1.1.2 The shortened WATM channel
20.1.2 The wireless local area network system
20.1.2.1 The WLAN channel
20.1.3 The UMTS system
20.1.3.1 The UMTS type channel
20.2 Effects of Time Dispersive Channels on OFDM
20.2.1 Effects of the stationary time dispersive channel
20.2.2 Non-stationary channel
20.2.2.1 Summary of time-variant channels
20.2.3 Signalling over time dispersive OFDM channels
20.3 Channel Estimation
20.3.1 Frequency domain channel estimation
20.3.1.1 Pilot symbol assisted schemes
20.3.1.1.1 Linear interpolation for PSAM
20.3.1.1.2 Ideal lowpass interpolation for PSAM
20.3.1.1.3 Summary
20.3.2 Time domain channel estimation
20.4 System Performance
20.4.1 Static time dispersive channel
20.4.1.1 Perfect channel estimation
20.4.1.2 Differentially coded modulation
20.4.1.3 Pilot symbol assisted modulation
20.4.2 Slowly varying time-dispersive channel
20.4.2.1 Perfect channel estimation
20.4.2.2 Pilot symbol assisted modulation
20.5 Conclusion
21 Time and Frequency Domain Synchronisation
21.1 Performance with Frequency and Timing Errors
21.1.1 Frequency shift
21.1.1.1 The spectrum of the OFDM signal
21.1.1.2 Effects of frequency mismatch on different modulation schemes
21.1.1.2.1 Coherent modulation
21.1.1.2.2 PSAM
21.1.1.2.3 Differential modulation
21.1.1.2.4 Frequency error - summary
21.1.2 Time domain synchronisation errors
21.1.2.1 Coherent demodulation
21.1.2.2 Pilot symbol assisted modulation
21.1.2.3 Differential modulation
21.1.2.3.1 Time-domain synchronisation errors - summary
21.2 Synchronisation Algorithms
21.2.1 Coarse frame and OFDM symbol synchronisation
21.2.2 Fine symbol tracking
21.2.3 Frequency acquisition
21.2.4 Frequency tracking
21.2.5 Synchronisation by autocorrelation
21.2.6 Multiple Access Frame Structure
21.2.6.1 The reference symbol
21.2.6.2 The correlation functions
21.2.7 Frequency tracking and OFDM symbol synchronisation
21.2.7.1 OFDM symbol synchronisation
21.2.7.2 Frequency tracking
21.2.8 Frequency acquisition and frame synchronisation
21.2.8.1 Frame synchronisation
21.2.8.2 Frequency acquisition
21.2.8.3 Block diagram of the synchronisation algorithms
21.2.9 Synchronisation using pilots
21.2.9.1 The reference symbol
21.2.9.2 Frequency acquisition
21.2.9.3 Performance of the pilot based frequency acquisition in AWGN Channels
21.2.9.4 Alternative frequency error estimation for frequency-domain pilot tones
21.3 Comparison of the Frequency Acquisition Algorithms
21.4 BER Performance with Frequency Synchronisation
21.5 Conclusion
21.6 Appendix: OFDM Synchronisation Performance
21.6.1 Frequency synchronisation in an AWGN channel
21.6.1.1 One phasor in AWGN environment
21.6.1.1.1 Cartesian coordinates
21.6.1.1.2 Polar coordinates
21.6.1.2 Product of two noisy phasors
21.6.1.2.1 Joint probability density
21.6.1.2.2 Phase distribution
21.6.1.2.3 Numerical integration
22 Adaptive Single- and Multi-user OFDM
22.1 Introduction
22.1.1 Motivation
22.1.2 Adaptive techniques
22.1.2.1 Channel quality estimation
22.1.2.2 Parameter adaptation
22.1.2.3 Signalling the parameters
22.1.3 System aspects
22.2 Adaptive Modulation for OFDM
22.2.1 System model
22.2.2 Channel model
22.2.3 Channel estimation
22.2.4 Choice of the modulation modes
22.2.4.1 Fixed threshold adaptation algorithm
22.2.4.2 Sub-band BER estimator adaptation algorithm
22.2.5 Constant throughput adaptive OFDM
22.2.6 Signalling and blind detection
22.2.6.1 Signalling
22.2.6.2 Blind detection by SNR estimation
22.2.6.3 Blind detection by multi-mode trellis decoder
22.2.7 Sub-band adaptive OFDM and channel coding
22.2.8 The effect of channel Doppler frequency
22.2.9 Channel estimation
22.3 Adaptive OFDM Speech System
22.3.1 Introduction
22.3.2 System overview
22.3.2.1 System parameters
22.3.3 Constant throughput adaptive modulation
22.3.3.1 Constant-rate BER performance
22.3.4 Multimode adaptation
22.3.4.1 Mode switching
22.3.5 Simulation results
22.3.5.1 Frame error results
22.3.5.2 Audio segmental SNR
22.4 Pre-equalisation
22.4.1 Motivation
22.4.2 Pre-equalisation with sub-band blocking
22.4.3 Adaptive modulation with spectral predistortion
22.5 Comparison of the Adaptive Techniques
22.6 Near-optimum Power- and Bit-allocation in OFDM
22.6.1 State-of-the-art
22.6.2 Problem description
22.6.3 Power and bit allocation algorithm
22.7 Multi-User AOFDM
22.7.1 Introduction
22.7.2 Adaptive transceiver architecture
22.7.3 Simulation results - perfect channel knowledge
22.7.4 Pilot-based channel parameter estimation
22.8 Summary
23 Block-Coded Adaptive OFDM
23.1 Introduction
23.1.1 Motivation
23.1.2 Choice of error correction codes
23.2 Redundant Residue Number System Codes
23.2.1 Performance in an AWGN channel
23.2.1.1 Performance in a fading time dispersive channel
23.2.1.2 Adaptive RRNS-coded OFDM
23.2.2 ARRNS/AOFDM transceivers
23.2.3 Soft decision RRNS decoding
23.3 Turbo BCH Codes
23.3.1 Adaptive TBCH coding
23.3.2 Joint ATBCH/AOFDM algorithm
23.4 Signalling
23.5 Comparison of Coded Adaptive OFDM Schemes
23.6 Summary, Conclusions and Further OFDM Research
23.6.1 Summary of the OFDM-related chapters
23.6.2 Conclusions concerning the OFDM chapters
23.6.3 Suggestions for further OFDM research
24 QAM-based Video Broadcast Systems
24.1 DVB-T for Mobile Receivers
24.1.1 Background and motivation
24.1.2 DVB terrestrial scheme
24.1.3 Terrestrial broadcast channel model
24.1.4 Non-hierarchical OFDM DVB performance
24.1.5 Video data partitioning scheme
24.1.6 Hierarchical OFDM DVB performance
24.1.7 Conclusions and future work
24.2 Satellite-based Video Broadcasting
24.2.1 Background and motivation
24.2.2 DVB satellite scheme
24.2.3 Satellite channel model
24.2.4 The blind equalisers
24.2.5 Performance of the DVB satellite scheme
24.2.5.1 Transmission over the symbol-spaced two-path
24.2.5.2 Transmission over the two-symbol delay channel
24.2.5.3 Performance summary of the DVB-S system
24.2.6 Conclusions and future work
Glossary
Bibliography
Index
Author Index



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