Introduction: from the science of accounts to the financial accountability of science. Making things quantitative. Natural and artificial budgets: accounting for Goethe's economy of nature. A calculating profession: Victorian actuaries among the staticians.The factory as laboratory. Connecting science to the economic: accounting calculation and the visibility of research and development. Governing science: patents and public sector research. On costumers and costs: a story from public sector science. A visible hand in the market place of ideas: precision measurements as arbitrage. Toward a philosophy of science accounting : a critical rendering of instrumental rationality.